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Hateras, and Tuscarora Native American groups lived in North Carolina
when European explorers first arrived in the early 1500s.
Giovanni da Verrazano was the first to explore Cape Fear for the
French in 1524.
Spanish explorer Lucas Vásquez established a colony near Cape
Fear two years later, but those who did not die of disease and
starvation left the area.
explorers arrived in North Carolina in 1584.
They colonized Roanoke Island and appointed John White as their
White left to go to England for supplies that same year, but when he
returned in 1590, the colony could not be found.
It later became known as the Lost Colony.
England again tried to colonize the area in 1629, but all
first permanent white settlers of North Carolina were farmers from
They arrived during the 1650s.
Later, European settlers arrived.
From 1663 to 1691 the colony of Carolina was divided into three
counties with separate governors.
After several governors were driven from Albemarle County, in a
revolt known as Culpeper’s Rebellion, one governor was appointed for
the entire Carolina colony.
In 1712, the North Carolina region became a separate colony.
settlers moved into Carolina during the early 1700s.
Bath, the first town was established near the Pamlico River.
By 1710, settlements spread along the entire coast of the Neuse
That same year New Bern was established.
Native Americans grew angry as white settlers took their lands.
In Sept. 1711, Tuscarora Indians massacred hundreds of settlers,
destroying most of the settlements along the Neuse River.
This marked the beginning of the Tuscarora War (1711-1713).
conflicts were fought during the following years.
The pirate Blackbeard was killed near Ocracoke Island in 1718,
ending a series of pirate attacks along the eastern coast.
Troops from Carolina were sent to resolve colonial wars,
including the French and Indian War (1754-1763).
In 1761, an important victory over the Cherokee opened much of
western Carolina to settlement.
in North Carolina were divided during the Revolutionary War.
Tories remained loyal to Britain and those who opposed Britain
were called Whigs.
The Whigs won the first battle in North Carolina at Moore’s
Creek Bridge in 1776.
Although much of the fighting left North Carolina, its soldiers
continued fighting for both sides in Virginia, Georgia, and South
Carolina’s delegates were the first to cry for independence to the
Continental Congress in 1778 and ratified the Articles of Confederation
that same year.
North Carolina waited to ratify the Constitution until the Bill
of Rights was added to it.
On Nov. 21, 1789, North Carolina became the 12th state
of the United States of America.
was slow in the state until the constitution was revised in 1835.
Railroads and roads were built and the agriculture industry
North Carolina depended much on slave labor to work cotton and
Before the Civil War began in 1861, many Southern states seceded
from the Union.
North Carolina remained in the Union, but withdrew to join the
Confederacy shortly after the war began.
125,000 soldiers fought for the Confederacy from North Carolina and many
battles occurred within the state.
At the end of the war, most of the state lay in ruins.
North Carolina was under military rule until a new constitution
outlawing slavery was ratified.
North Carolina was readmitted to the Union on June 25, 1868.
the war, huge plantations were divided and sold to tenant farmers.
Tobacco manufacturing grew rapidly in Durham while the furniture
industry built factories in High Point.
Textile mills flourished along the rivers.
By the end of the 1920s, North Carolina led the nation in
production of cotton textiles, wooden furniture, and tobacco products.
State leaders improved education and created the State Highway
Commission to expand roadways.
Great Depression (1929-1939) left thousands without work.
North Carolina and the federal government created jobs expanding
roads and cleaning up state parks.
The state improved welfare and reduced state taxes.
By the late 1930s, the economy was steadily improving.
During the 1940s, construction began on Fontana and Kerr Dam.
New medical centers were built and roadways continued to expand
throughout the state.
the 1890s, laws were passed that required racial segregation of schools,
restaurants, and public facilities.
In 1960, four black students in Greensboro held the nation’s
first sit-in, by refusing to leave a restricted lunch counter.
In 1964, the Civil Rights Act banned the segregation of public
During the 1970s, schools also became integrated.